Almost everyone will experience bleeding gums at some point in their life. Generally the problem was found when brushing teeth. Bleeding gums can be caused by many things. The most common cause of bleeding gums is the presence of plaque and tartar which sticks on the tooth surface.
Our teeth are covered with smooth transparent layer called Pellicle. The Pellicle helps protect teeth against acid that can cause decay. However, the smooth layer is also a major surface for bacteria and other microorganisms to accumulate and lead to the development of plaque. If it’s not cleaned properly, the plaque begins to mineralize and harden into tartar that stick on the tooth surface.
As time goes on, different types of bacterias appear, the plaque becomes thicker and can cause damage to gum tissue, which starting from gingiva. This will lead to a condition called gingivitis (gum inflammation) where the gum become swell and bleed easily.
If remain untreated, gingivitis can advance to periodontitis where plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. Toxins produced by bacteria in plaque irritate the gum. Toxins stimulate a chronic inflammatory response in which the body in essence turn on itself, and bone and tissue supporting the teeth are damaged and destroyed. Gum separate from teeth, periodontal pocket (spaces between teeth and gums) that become infected. As the disease progresses, pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are damaged. Lastly, teeth can become loose and may be removed.
Tartar can not be cleaned by brushing. To removed tartar you have to seek dentist to do scaling. Furthermore, the dentist will check your teeth and gums damage condition. If only occur gingivitis, scaling is usually sufficient. But if occur periodontitis, then it will take to the further periodontal treatment.
Apart from tartar and plaque, bleeding gums are also can be cause by several diseases, such as lack of vitamin C and blood disorders. Lack of vitamin C occur in people who do not eat vegetables or fruit in the long term. Gum in patients with deficiency of vitamin C becomes swollen and bleeding. This condition called Scurvy. To overcome this problem, you should eat more nutritious foods that are rich in vitamin C such as lemon, orange, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, spinach, etc.